Home Adoption

Adoption

Texas Adoption

Texas Adoption

A Quick Guide to Texas Adoption

Texas Adoption Laws

All Texas adoptions regard procedures and laws under Chapter 162 of the Texas Family Code.  This Chapter addresses adoption, and several laws are discussed throughout this article.  You can also find information about the adoption process in this article as well.  If you need legal advice and assistance, contact Texas lawyers.

Texas Adoption Requirements and Eligibility Factors

In the state of Texas, adoptions can occur as long as a person is over the age of 18 shows evidence of being able to provide for the child and meet their best interests.  

However, certain people cannot adopt in the state of Texas.  A Texas adoption cannot occur if the potential parent has a criminal record (in most cases), has shown any evidence of abuse or violence in the past, does not meet eligibility requirements according to a home study from a social worker, does not show evidence of being financially stable, or other reasons.  

The Texas Adoption Process

Fortunately, Texas adoptions usually begin with two parents (regardless of sex and race) who are good standing citizens and ready for a child.  The child must meet a number of eligibility factors under Sections 162.001, 162.501, and 162.504.  The eligibility factors of the child are paraphrased below: 

• the rights of the parents have been terminated

• a parent whose rights have not been terminated is the spouse of the petitioner and the proceeding is for stepparent Texas adoption

• the child is at least two years old; the parent-child relationship has been terminated for one parent; the person applying for adoption rights has been managing conservator or has had actual physical possession or control of the child for at least 6 months; or the person is the former stepparent and the non-terminated parent agrees to the adoption

• an adult may adopt another adult with adopted person’s consent 

After a child has been placed for adoption by the natural parent, adoptive parent, legal guardian, a license child-placing agency, or the Department of Protective and Regulatory Services, Texas adoptions will go through a number of steps.  These steps for Texas adoptions are listed below: 

1. The prospective legal parent will file a petition to the court 

2. a health, social, education, and genetic history report will be formulated the person petitioning,  a child-placing agency, or any other social service

3. the person filing the petition for the Texas adoption will have to pass a criminal history report which deeply investigates any prospective parent’s past criminal history 

4. Once the petition requesting termination has been filed along with the petition requesting adoption, the court will make a decision if the action is in the best interest of the child and then allow the Texas adoption

5. If the withdrawal of or denial of the petition has occurred, the court may remove the child from the adoptive home if the removal is in the child’s best interest

Texas adoptions will require more steps if the parent(s) is requesting a foreign adoption.  Petitioners are always encouraged to contact an adoption attorney before beginning the adoption process.  

 

Alabama Adoption

Alabama Adoption

 
 
A brief guide to Alabama adoption
 
 
Any single person or couple who wishes to adopt a minor child in the state of Alabama must be aware of all the laws related. Alabama adoptions come in four different forms:
 
 
• Private adoptions concern a private agreement between a birth parent and an adopting parent or couple. This type of Alabama adoption is best supervised by a lawyer who is experienced in the documentation. Once a document relinquishing the custody of a child is signed, the person who signs it has 14 days to revoke it. After this time, Alabama adoptions of this type almost certainly cannot be undone.
 
 
It should be noted that parents who relinquish the right to their children must make a decision as to whether or not this minor child can learn more about them as an adult. When giving up a child for Alabama adoption, you may decide to make all information about you available on request, such as your name and address. Alternately, you may choose to only have medical history and similar, non-identifying information available.
 
 
• In agency adoptions, parents give custody of a child to an agency that works with the state to find a new home. When performing this type of Alabama adoption, an agency will generally have a lawyer on hand to supervise all aspects of the procedure.
 
 
• Public adoptions involve transferring a child who has become a ward of the state after being taken away from unfit or abusive parents. These types of Alabama adoptions are supervised by child protective services.
 
 
• Intercountry adoptions involve a child from another country. An Alabama adoption of this type requires the person performing it to comply with both American and international law.
 
 
Regardless of the type of adoption you are seeking to perform, a long "home study" process will be involved. Many measures will be taken to ensure that you are psychologically fit to go through with Alabama adoptions. This process may take anywhere from three to six months and will include extensive interviews and examinations of your home life.
 
 
There are not many expenses that you will be directly responsible for during this part of the Alabama adoptions home study examination. You may be responsible for the cost of conducting a criminal background check and providing your medical records. Otherwise, most expense will be covered by the Alabama Department of Human Resources.
 
 
In order to complete this process before you are allowed to go through with an Alabama adoption, you may be required to provide information related to:
 
 
• Your income
 
• Your upbringing
 
• Your views on parenting
 
• Your expectations for the Alabama adoption process
 
 
Along with the adoption of physically and mentally healthy children, there are special provisions concerning Alabama adoptions of children with disabilities. Such minor children may qualify for Medicaid coverage. However, these kinds of "special needs" children also include:
 
 
• Children over the age of eight
 
• African-American children age two or older
 
• In cases where multiple siblings are involved, groups of three or more children
 
 

Kentucky Adoption

Kentucky Adoption

 
 
Guide to Kentucky Adoption
 
 
If you are considering adopting a child in Kentucky, you may want to know more about the KY adoption process.  Generally speaking, Kentucky adoption through the state's foster care system can be quite inexpensive and may take as little as a few months.  This guide will explain the steps you will need to take in order to complete a KY adoption, from beginning to end.  If you want to adopt through a domestic or international adoption agency rather than through the state foster care system, you may want to contact the agency for their Kentucky adoption procedure.
 
 
The Kentucky Adoption Process: Inquiry and Application
 
 
The first step potential adoptive parents must take is applying for their KY adoption.  If you are considering a Kentucky adoption, the application must be filled out completely and returned to your local Protection and Permanency Office, which is the office in your area responsible for handling KY adoption.  This office will then tell you about the next steps in your Kentucky adoption process, including when the next mandatory information meeting about adoption will be held.
 
 
The Kentucky Adoption Process: Orientation and Preparation
 
 
When you attend the mandatory informational session, you will learn more about your Department for Community Based Services, which helps place children with adoptive families.  You'll also learn about children waiting for a KY adoption and how the foster care system in Kentucky works to connect children to an appropriate home.
 
 
Over the next ten weeks, you'll attend ten meetings that cover topics relating to Kentucky adoption, including the special needs of foster and adoptive children as well as adapting your own parenting philosophy to accommodate an adoptive child's needs.  You can use these meetings to help decide whether to continue pursuing a KY adoption through the foster care system.
 
 
The Kentucky Adoption Process: Home Study/Family Profile
 
 
While you are completing all ten of your preparation meetings (a total of 30 hours of training), you'll be required to complete a home study.  This will involve an adoption case worker visiting your home and interviewing you as well as all other members of your household.  A profile will be built of you and your family, including complete background checks and a medical history.
 
 
You will have to respond to many personal questions during the home study.  You will be asked about your parenting philosophy, your own childhood and relationship to your parents, and about how you might handle situations that could arise with an adopted child.  This is to ensure that the KY adoption process matches families to children who will be suitable for them.
 
 
The Kentucky Adoption Process: Matching and Placement
 
 
After you have completed the home study (which is paid by the state when you complete a KY adoption through the foster care system), you will begin the matching process.  You will meet with the child you are interested in adopting and, if the visits are successful, the child will be placed in your home.  At this point, you can go to family court to finalize your Kentucky adoption.
 
 

Oregon Adoption

Oregon Adoption

 
 
Guide to Oregon Adoption
 
 
If you are planning to adopt through the state of Oregon's foster system, you may be able to complete your OR adoption inexpensively and relatively quickly.  Many children are currently waiting in the foster system for an adoptive home, and the state offers Oregon adoption subsidies for parents who adopt waiting children.  This guide will give you a basic overview of the process of OR adoption from the foster care system.  If you need more information about how to adopt, you may want to consult with an Oregon adoption attorney.
 
 
Who May Adopt?
 
 
Just about anyone who can give a child a safe home is eligible for OR adoption.  Both single and married parents, gay and straight, are allowed to adopt a child in the state.  Homeowners and renters can complete the Oregon adoption process, and older families as well as younger ones are welcome to adopt.
 
 
The major factor that would preclude a person from being eligible for an OR adoption would be a criminal conviction for a violent offense or an offense against children.  People who have been convicted of these offenses are not allowed to complete the Oregon adoption process.
 
 
The Oregon Adoption Process: Training and Application
 
 
When you initiate the adoption process, you will fill out an application and will be able to ask questions from your local branch of the Department of Children, Adults, and Families.  You may, in many counties, be required to attend OR adoption training classes.  These classes can get you ready for some of the challenges associated with adoption, whether you are interested in adopting an infant or an older child or teenager.
 
 
The Oregon Adoption Process: Home Study
 
 
When you apply for an OR adoption from the foster care system, you must have a home study prepared.  Your home study is the portion of the Oregon adoption process where a case worker interviews you and your family, inspects your home, and completes a background check.  When the case worker for your OR adoption visits your home, they will check for safety hazards and potential issues, and can give you a chance to fix any problems that might preclude your adoption.
 
 
You may be surprised at how detailed and personal the questions are for your Oregon adoption home study.  You will be asked questions about your reasons for pursuing an OR adoption, and about your childhood.  You will also have to talk about your parenting style and philosophy, and what you might do in circumstances common to adoptive parents.  Your Oregon adoption home study will be subsidized by the state if you adopt through the foster care system.
 
 
The Oregon Adoption Process: Matching and Placement
 
 
After your home study has been completed, your OR adoption case worker will begin the work of matching your family to a waiting child.  You will be able to visit with the child before the adoptive placement is completed.  You may be eligible for post-placement assistance with your Oregon adoption in some circumstances.  Finalization of an OR adoption can only take place when a family court judge officially approves the adoption, but this is typically a formality and can be relatively fast.
 
 

Oklahoma Adoption

Oklahoma Adoption

Guide to Oklahoma Adoption

More families than ever are choosing to open their homes to an OK adoption.  If you are considering an adoption through the state of Oklahoma's foster care system, you may want to know more about the process you can expect.  This guide will explain how the Oklahoma adoption process works, from your initial inquiry until your new child moves into your home.  If you want more information on a specific aspect of the adoption process, you may want to contact the Oklahoma Department of Human Services or a qualified OK adoption attorney.

The Oklahoma Adoption Process: First Steps

In order to adopt a child from Oklahoma, you will need to start by making an initial inquiry to the Department of Human Services.  Once you have made an initial inquiry, you will be referred to a pre-service training class near you.  These classes typically happen once a week until you have completed the 27 hours of pre-service training required by Oklahoma law for adoption.  Classes will cover topics ranging from the adoption process itself to what you can expect from your relationship with your new adopted child.

The Oklahoma Adoption Process: Home Study

In order to determine whether your home would be suitable for a placement, an OK adoption case worker will perform a home study.  This involves not only a visit to and inspection of your house, but also interviews with all household members.  You will be asked about your reasons for wanting an Oklahoma adoption, as well as questions about your parenting philosophy.  You may be asked hypothetical questions about what you would do in situations commonly encountered by adoptive parents.

As part of your home study, you will be required to complete fingerprinting and a background check.  OK adoption law also requires all household members to have a medical examination, which can determine whether they may have health problems that would make caring for a child difficult or impossible.  There are no age requirements for completing an Oklahoma adoption, as long as a medical examination reveals that you are reasonably healthy and have no urgent or untreated medical conditions.

The Oklahoma Adoption Process: Matching and Placement

Once the home study is completed, provided it goes well and your background check does not exclude you from adopting, you will be qualified as an adoptive family.  You will be able to tell your OK adoption case worker what kind of child you are looking for.  Being matched takes more time for families who want an infant adoption or want to limit their adoption choices to children of one race or those with no siblings.

Once you are matched with a child, you will be able to visit with that child several times in order to see if the match is good.  If it appears that the placement would be successful, your Oklahoma adoption caseworker will recommend placement and finalization.  Your adoption will not be complete until it is finalized in a court hearing.

 

Louisiana Adoption

Louisiana Adoption

A brief guide to Louisiana adoptions

Whether you are a single person or part of a couple, if you wish to adopt a minor child there are a number of potential complications you should be aware of. There are four different types of Louisiana adoption which you may consider:

• Private adoptions are arranged between a birth parent and the adopting person or couple. These kinds of Louisiana adoptions will require a contract to be drawn up detailing such issues as how much of the birth parents' expenses must be paid for. For example, the person who will be taking custody may agree to pay for all of their hospital expenses. To ensure that this kind of Louisiana adoption is executed properly, you will probably wish to consult with Louisiana lawyers who can draw up a contract whose language is clear and cannot leave you open to future litigation.

• Public adoptions occur when a single person or couple takes custody of a child that is in the care of child protective services.

• Interagency Louisiana adoptions involve taking custody of a child who has been relinquished by their birth parent to the care of an agency.

• International adoptions involve taking custody of a child from another country. Along with a private Louisiana adoption, this is the most complicated and potentially expensive way to complete this process. You will almost certainly need the assistance of a lawyer to ensure that you are in compliance with the laws of the state, as well as with that of the country from which you are adopting a child.

Regardless of which form of Louisiana adoption you are considering, you cannot initiate this process until you have undergone the "homestudy" procedure. This is a state-administered evaluation of your fitness to be a parent. People who are found to be unfit after this kind of review will not be allowed to execute Louisiana adoptions.

There are many components to this kind of examination. When undertaking this review of your fitness to be eligible for Louisiana adoptions, the state generally will not charge you for any expenses other than making your medical and financial records available. However, you may wish to pay for the expense of a lawyer who can help you understand what to expect. Prior to your request to be allowed to commit a Louisiana adoption, you will be extensively interviewed about your upbringing, expectations as a parent and any other factor which could affect your fitness to take custody of a child.

While these proceedings can be expensive, in some cases you may be eligible for a tax credit. Louisiana adoptions of children deemed to have "special needs" may qualify you for this kind of financial aid. Some types of children who could fall under this category include African-American youth, children with special medical needs and children age eight or older. Since such children often have difficulty finding homes, consider if you are willing to undertake this kind of Louisiana adoption.

 

What you must know about fostering

What you must know about fostering

What is Fostering?
The process of fostering another individual exists within the realm of Family Law; Fostering is defined as the procedure undertaken with regard to the granting of temporary supervision over an individual by an individual or entity who is not legally classified as maintaining guardianship or familial ties to the fostered individual.


Fostering vs. Adopting
In contrast with adoption, Fostering shares in in neither the permanence nor the assumed responsibility attributed within the adoption process. While the process of adopting a child is considered to be an immediate contingency plan with regard to children who have been abandoned or removed from their respective birth parents, Fostering a child is not typically considered to share in the urgency or contingency latent within adoption; governmental bodies responsible for the Fostering of children will typically consider the implementation of the Fostering process only after the prospect of familial reunification has been deemed not to be in the best interest of that individual:
Fostering a Child
Though rarely uniform, relative family members such as cousins and grandparents may be sought out with regard to the supervision of a child prior to the potential fostering of a particular child
In certain cases, funding disbursed by the jurisdictional governing body responsible for the oversight of the Fostering of children will be granted to eligible foster parents
Individuals Fostering a child are considered to assume guardianship no paternity of the fostered individual
Fostering a child occurs on a temporary basis; only subsequent to individual, judicial review of a particular familial setting or circumstance will a decision be rendered with regard to the permanency of a situation in which a child is fostered

Adopting a Child

In contrast to the Fostering of a child, the adoption of a child allows the individual or individuals undertaking the adoption of the child in question to maintain legal guardianship in tandem with legal responsibility with regard to the adoptee
Unlike Fostering as child, the adoption of a child is considered to be a permanent measure; the obligation undertaken by an adoptive parent – or adoptive parents – is considered to exist in the long-term
In lieu of funding disbursed to individuals undertaking the Fostering of individuals, adoptive parents are typically ineligible to receive funding with regard to the costs of adoption, in addition to funding with regard to the cost of living implicit within an adoption
Unless otherwise expressed, adoptive parents maintain established paternity with regard to adoptees; as a result, they are traditionally permitted to permit or prohibit visitation with birth parents – conversely, individuals Fostering other individuals are unable to assume the imposition of such measures regulating any such visitation


The Legality of Fostering an Individual
Despite their latent differences, the screening process with regard to Fostering a child consists of similar guidelines, eligibility, qualifications, and standards as does the screening process required by prospective parents; typically, individuals interested in Fostering children will be required to:
Undergo thorough background checks, including the review of financial and criminal records
Complete informational programs and instructional classes provided by the United States government
Adhere to a schedule in which inspections and interviews conducted by government employees may take place

The Facts on Baby Adoption

The Facts on Baby Adoption

Many parents will seek to adopt a baby, choosing to raise the child from a very young age.  There will be no shortage of baby adoptions available, especially when mothers have opted against abortion and carried the baby to term.  There are some adoption agencies that specialize in baby adoption owing to different rules and laws regarding adopting babies and infants.  The entire process will take up to two years depending on the wishes of the parents, babies available and time it takes for the parents to provide adequate arrangements for a child.  

What are the typical steps in baby adoption?

Like all other adoptions, after the prospective parents have applied for an adoption, a home study will be conducted by a social worker to ensure that the family is qualified by an adoption.  The choice of which family the child will be place with is sometimes at the discretion of the birthmother and the prospective adopting parents may have to meet with the birthmother for evaluation.

What are laws regarding baby adoption?

After an era where many unwed birthmothers were forced to give their children up for adoption, legal safeguards now exist to protect the rights of the birthmother against coercive adoption as well as provide legal protection for mothers that put their child up for adoption.  

The Safe Haven law protects the rights of the mother to give up a newborn child for adoption.  Under this arrangement, the mother will bring the baby, no more than five days old, to a hospital, fire or police station and leave the infant in the care of an individual there.  That individual will arrange for the child to be placed in safe hands.  Safe haven laws will vary by state and you will need to ensure that this law is followed or the birthmother will face criminal charges.  Some states will check with the father of the child, if available, to ascertain if custody can indeed be relinquished.

State laws will also define the consent to adoption, which protects both the rights of the birthmother and the father if paternity is established.  The right to consent can be terminated though if either parent abandons the child or commits a number of offenses that would find them unfit to be parents.  There are also limitations on when the mother can consent to the adoption with some states allowing it some hours after the birth and some even allowing the consent to adopt before the baby is born.  Consent can be revoked if the court finds the mother was forced to give up the child through coercion or that the consent was withdrawn within a legally defined amount of time, generally a few days after consent is given,

What will it cost for a baby adoption?

Tax credits for the adoption of a child may be more than enough to cover the adoption service fees.  You will need to speak with the adoption service to determine your fee arrangements and what you will pay for the services, including services such as home studies.

 

The Process of a Haiti Adoption

The Process of a Haiti Adoption

Due to the recent humanitarian crisis, there are a number of Haitian children that are available for adoption.  It is important to follow Haitian adoption laws properly to avoid problems with both Haitian and American law enforcement and protect your custody claim with the adopted child.  The entire process for Haiti adoption, done properly and according to law, will take up to 24 months but will ensure your Haiti adoption is legal and protects the welfare of the child.

Initial stage
Thankfully, adoption is not as simple as picking a child as one would pick a puppy for adoption.  The first step in the process is to file an application for adoption with the appropriate agency or organizations.  There exist a few reliable adoption services that will work with both governments on your behalf.  This application will be ask you for basic information and may ask about your intentions in adopting a child.

Second Stage
The adoption service will then proceed to do a home study to ensure that your home is a proper place for a child to live.  The adoption agency will typically provide this service and report the results of the home study to Haitian authorities, ensuring that you are a proper parent.  The adoption service will have social workers that will evaluate your home so that the adoption agency feels secure in recommending you as an adoptive parent to the Haitian government.
You will at this phase, need to complete a dossier that represents your application to the Haitian government.  As such, the documents must include a French translation and a reliable adoption service will be able to assist you with this.  A typical dossier will include testimony from the prospective adoptive parents on why they want a Haiti adoption.  This stage will take about four months to complete.

Third Stage
The Haitian Adoption Authority, once they are convinced you are a fit parent will begin the process of identifying a child whose needs match your ability.  This authority, in conjunction with other Haitian government agencies, may take as long as 18 months to certify the adoption.  This part of the adoption process is especially difficult for families as the waiting period is unpredictable and tends to be long.
After the adoption is certified, the adoptive parents will travel to Haiti and bring the child to the United States.  There will be two trips to Haiti.  One trip will be to file the necessary paperwork with the Haitian courts and to visit the child to be adopted.  The second trip will be to bring the child home.


Note
aPlease note that if you were in the process of an adoption prior to the Jan 2010 earthquake, there exist waivers to quickly process these orphans and bring them to the United States.  In the unlikely event that your Haiti adoption has still not processed, you should contact the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services immediately.

Artificial Insemination

Artificial Insemination

What is Artificial Insemination?
Artificial insemination is the process by which sperm is placed into the reproductive tract of a female for the sole purpose of procreation. Because of this anticipated result, artificial insemination is a medical substitute to sexual intercourse or natural insemination. As an assisted reproductive technology, artificial insemination will use the sperm from the female’s male partner or sperm from a donor in situations where the male is unable to produce sperm or the woman is single or a lesbian.  In addition to human reproduction, artificial insemination is commonly used for livestock breeding, especially for pigs and dairy cattle. 
Artificial Insemination: Preparation
Artificial insemination commences when freshly ejaculated or frozen and thawed sperm is placed in the cervix via an intra-cervical insemination. In human beings, the procedure was originally developed as a means of aiding couples with conception where the male’s problems of producing sperm otherwise inhibited procreation. 
As mentioned above, the sperm sample is either be provided by the male partner or by a sperm donor if the partner is not able to produce effective sperm or if the woman is not actively involved in a relationship. If taken from a donor, the sperm must be frozen and subsequently quarantined for a specific period. The sperm—as well as the male donor–will then be tested to ensure that the individual does not carry any transmissible diseases. All sperm donated in this fashion is produced through masturbation at a licensed sperm bank.
If the sperm is provided by a private donor, either through a sperm agency or directly, it will typically be supplied fresh and not go through the quarantine process. Private donor sperm is primarily produced via masturbation; however, some donors will use a collection condom to obtain the sperm during sexual intercourse with their own partners. 
Regardless of route, the male providing the sperm is typically advised not to ejaculate for 48-72 hours before offering the sample—this constraint is required to increase the individual’s sperm count. Furthermore, the woman’s menstrual cycle must be closely monitored by tracking her body temperature and alterations in vaginal mucus. 
When using an intrauterine insemination, the sperm must be washed, concentrated and warmed. “Washing” the sperm will increase the chances of fertilization and remove attached mucus and non-motile sperm in the semen.  
Artificial Insemination: Procedure
When the ovum is released, semen provided by the donor is artificially inseminated into the female’s vagina or uterus. In the case of vaginal artificial insemination, the semen is placed in the vagina via a needle-less syringe. The more effective artificial insemination procedure will insert the semen direct into the female’s uterus. This form of artificial insemination will only utilize ‘washed’ semen and will use a catheter as the vehicle for insertion. 
If the artificial insemination procedure is successful, the female will conceive. The baby, in this situation, is regarded as the woman’s biological child and the biological offspring of the male whose sperm was used during the artificial insemination process. Pregnancy resulting from artificial insemination is no different from pregnancy achieved following sexual intercourse.